Harm Reduction

There exists a long list of reasons not to take drugs: addiction, decreased productivity, deleterious health effects, damage to personal relationships, and the chance of fatal overdose are just a handful. To this tally of negative consequences, researchers have added another: an increased risk of suicide.

A team of Iranian epidemiologists searched the literature for papers on substance use disorder (SUD) and suicide. Because the researchers were primarily concerned with drugs other than alcohol, they excluded papers that did not separate the effects of alcohol from other drugs. They also excluded data on accidental overdose deaths. After applying these and other criteria, the team selected 43 papers (which represented a total of 870,967 participants) and performed a meta-...

In a recent article, actor Ben Stiller chronicled how early diagnosis of prostate cancer - by a routine Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) blood test - saved his life; as such, he urged all men over 40 to discuss the PSA test with their doctors.  There is no doubt that the testimony of a high-profile individual such as Mr. Stiller will cause many men to consider getting a PSA test yet we at the American Council on Science and Health and many others have been critical of it, so it is fitting that we review where science stands on the issue.

The PSA is a blood test that measures...

Yep, cautions abound about having your attention focused on your phone while walking, driving, or supposedly taking notes in class. Some such situations can obviously result in grievous bodily harm — walking into an open manhole or driving into a tree, for example.

Others, not so much. And now there's yet a new condition for all you inveterate texters out there — text neck. Haven't heard of this yet? Well, neither had we, until we were alerted to a website run by chiropractor Alan Mandell. According to "Dr." Mandell, the forward head posture typical of texters can result in: disc herniation, bulging discs, arthritis, bone spurs, shoulder pronation and on and on. And not only that, hunching forward doesn't allow...

While nicotine is the addictive substance in cigarettes, it is the long term exposure to inhaled smoke - and its toxic constituents - that adversely impact the lungs. 

One such harmful mechanism is inflammation of the airways, which progressively damages and ultimately impairs lung function.  Nowadays, there are several ways one can give up the harmful toxicants of cigarette smoke while minimizing nicotine cravings.  Nicotine replacement is available in gums, patches, sprays, and electronically vaporized liquids. Proponents say that the latter, which they call electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), may be particularly more appealing, and therefore more beneficial in reducing cigarettes, because of their ability to simulate the mechanics of cigarettes.

But what...

Wednesday, Sept. 21 will mark another mixed-emotion anniversary for the family of the late Nils Bohlin, a celebrated inventor and design engineer whose work and landmark signature creation is widely credited with saving more than 1,000,000 lives. 

On that day in 2002, Bohlin was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame for his work in the late 1950's developing the three-point safety belt, which is standard equipment in cars everywhere and since its adoption has significantly reduced automobile fatalities around the world. 

On the same day, however, Bohlin passed away at the age of 82. So when he posthumously took his place among the world's all-time great inventors -- Thomas Edison (electric lighting, phonograph), Orville and Wilbur Wright (flight) and Enrico ...

Increasing numbers of mothers are now pregnant with twins, mainly due to the use of assisted reproductive techniques such as IVF. These pregnancies can either be monochorionic, where the twins share the same placenta, or dichorionic, where each twin has its own and which is more common.

Twin pregnancies are often complicated by problems related to the placenta, maternal age, obstetric complications, and concerns about the growth of the twins. Complications can often happen in pregnancies near term that have otherwise gone well, with no single cause identified for why this happens.

Twin pregnancies are at high risk of stillbirths compared to mothers carrying just one baby. This...

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) V has relegated the terms substance abuse and substance dependence, replacing them with substance use. Substance use disorders (SUD) are characterized as mild, moderate, or severe according to the new diagnostic criteria which require evidence of impaired control, social impairment, risky use and pharmacological indicators (tolerance and withdrawal). The actual substances in consideration include alcohol, cannabis, hallucinogens, inhalants, opioids, sedatives/ hypnotics/ anxiolytics, stimulants, and tobacco. 

The 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health cited that approximately 21.5 million people aged 12...

Monday was my first day at the American Council on Science and Health (ACSH). In an effort to be a welcoming colleague, Dr. Josh Bloom, Senior Director of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, called me on the phone. In doing so, he somehow almost broke his hand on a chair. Identifying with the freakish nature of his injury, and after getting an assurance that he was okay, I couldn’t stop laughing.  

I’ve done it. Seen it. Treated it.

I assume I'm not alone. So I began thinking about rates of unintentional injury and that time I got badly burned on day one of a trip to a Caribbean Island.  What happened? As I attempted to deal with the burn I reached inside my luggage and my hand met with resistance.  So, what did I do?  I kept persevering, pushing it into the bag— all...

 Shutterstock Khloe Kardashian, Credit: Shutterstock

The Kardashian family has made a fortune using its celebrity status to market a number of cosmetic and health products over the years, among other things.

In a post on her website, Khloe Kardashian expresses her love for Vitamin E. And I can respect that. The benefits of the fat soluble antioxidant have been well documented scientifically. However, she managed to step over the boundaries of science to what I can only consider fiction. The TV personality advocates for other uses of Vitamin E - specifically mentioning its benefits in the vaginal...

Credit: ShutterstockCredit: Shutterstock

Everyone talks about addiction, some people even invoke the term about lots of things that aren't known to be addictive, like using a smartphone or watching television, which muddies the issue for defining actual addicts. Alcohol can be addictive, as are cigarettes and drugs. How is that crossover determined?

A team writing in Health Sociology Review identify five key processes by which the tools used to...